2 edition of use of polyalkylene glycol in sonar transducers found in the catalog.
use of polyalkylene glycol in sonar transducers
C. M Thompson
|Series||NRL report -- 8283|
|Contributions||Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.). Underwater Sound Reference Detachment. Transducer Branch|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||iv, 26 p. :|
|Number of Pages||26|
I started with a % water sample, and measured the speed of ultrasound using 1MHz transducer, and in 10% increments added propylene glycol to the sample fixture until I reached % propylene glycol. Curiously, the velocity of ultrasound waves when plotted against % propylene glycol. Meanwhile, Meyer and Jabardo () and Navarro de Andrade et al. () expanded the use of an acoustic velocity sensor method to R12 with 3GS and 5GS mineral oils, Ra/POE, and R22/AB. Kutsuna et al. () proposed using a light absorption method in measuring the oil mass fraction for R12/mineral oil and Ra/PAG oil; the measurement.
Sundaresan, S. G., "Status Report on Polyalkylene Glycol Lubricants For Use With HFCA In Refrigeration Compressors" (). International Refrigeration and Air . By Wil Escobar tlt feature 4/15/08 AM Page been flat or declining for the past decade and a half. Synthetics, on the other hand, have been Polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) represent about 24% of the total synthetic lubricant market worldwide.3 Despite a highly com-.
Fish Finder and Depth Sounder Transducers. Wide bandwidth sonar fish fnder transducers have a short ring down time. This allows the user to distinguish between objects close together within the transducers field of view, for example, being able to distinguish fish close to the sea bed. Sonar Transducers: A History World War II Prompted Incredible A ccomplishments-A ided by Eliminating 'R ed Tape: R apidA dvances in Production Engineering By Frank Massa Massa Products Corp. Preface: Our on~v available A S W sonar systems in were inadequate to pre vent the very high rate o/sinkings o./U.S.
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Get this from a library. The use of polyalkylene glycol in sonar transducers. [C M Thompson; Naval Research Laboratory (U.S.). Underwater Sound Reference Detachment. Transducer Branch.].
POLYALKYLENE GLYCOL AS A TRANSDUCER FLUID Introduction Various liquids are used as acoustic transfer mediums in underwater sound devices. Baker's DB grade castor oil is the liquid principally used by the Underwater Sound Reference Division of the Naval Research Laboratory in Navy standard calibration transducers.
The advantages of. Oil Soluble polyalkylene glycols (OSP) use butylene oxide as a building block High viscosity OSPs show higher alpha values across the temperature range. Introduction to Polyalkylene Glycols (PAGs) • High performance synthetic lubricants (Group V) • First developed over 60 years ago • Solve problems that mineral oils cannot • Manufactured from ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and/or butylene oxide • Flexible chemistry – polymers can be designed and tailored to meet almost any requirement.
Oil-Soluble Polyalkylene Glycols (OSPs) can be used as a primary base oil, a co-base oil, or even a performance enhancing additive in formulations.
To demonstrate OSP use in formulations, the compatibility of OSPs has been examined on common elastomers, with. Propylene glycol is used extensively in these systems. The unsaturated dicarboxylic acid is typically maleic or fumeric acid and the saturated dicarboxylic acid is phthalic or isophthalic acid.
Other glycols are also used but monopropylene glycol is the most typically used. larger view. A Guide to Glycols. Purchase Ultrasonic Transducers - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBNIn addition, automotive air conditioning systems may also use polyalkylene glycol (PAG) lubricants (not typically seen in stationary equipment).
Both POEs and PAGs will absorb moisture, and hold onto it, to a much greater extent than traditional lubricants. Selecting a Sonar Transducer. By Tom Burden, Last updated: 8/21/ Bronze thru-hull Transducer with fairing block that streamlines the outside part and corrects for the deadrise of the hull.
The transducer is the heart of a fishfinder system, changing electrical pulses into sound waves or acoustic energy and back again. It is the device that.
A modified polyalkylene glycol has been found to possess compatible features with transducer materials and to meet the criteria for a fluid to use in all sonar transducers. Selecting your transducer.
The sonar image on your display starts with the transducer, so its characteristics greatly affect the performance of the system. With so many different technologies, transducer selection may seem mystifying. The main points to consider are how will it be mounted, what views do I want and what frequencies do I need.
Published February Polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) are used in a wide variety of end-use markets; this report concentrates on nonurethane applications, which include markets for lubricants (including functional fluids), personal care products and pharmaceuticals, concrete admixtures, surfactants, and chemical intermediates.
Polyalkylene glycol fills the transducer housing and all the voids therein to acoustically interconnect the active element and the acoustic window.
The invention is also directed to providing a method of filling a transducer housing with polyalkylene glycol to ensure improved performance. Speeds of Sound, Densities, and Isentropic Compressibilities of the System Methanol + Tetraethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether at the Temperatures from K to K.
This paper will focus on the development of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) lubricants for use in automotive AJC systems. It will review the properties of PAG lubricants that has led to their use with Ra, including their good solubility, stability, and lubricity.
The tradeoffs between competing properties. One of the most versatile types of synthetics is polyalkylene glycol (PAG) lubricants. PAGs are generally known as compressor lubricants, and their use in industry has increased since the s.
Increasing performance standards in the automotive and industrial markets peg these sectors as areas that show promise for growth. APPENDIX A: Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG) Quenching There are several commercial polymers quenchants that are readily accepted and used today such as Polyvinyl Alcohol, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Polyacrylates, and Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG).
Of these, PAG’s are most common and will be considered extensively in this chapter . The ethylene oxide polymers are generally called poly (ethylene glycols) or poly (ethylene oxides).
The Chemical Abstractsnomenclature is oxirane polymer. The propylene oxide polymers are known as poly (propylene glycols) or poly (propy- lene oxides) with a. Title 21 CFR from the FDA provides for the use of polyalkylene glycol monobutyl ether polymeric fluids with molecular weight greater thanas a boiler water additive in the preparation of steam that will contact food.
Title 21 CFR from the. Clariant offers base stocks based on polyol esters, complex esters and on polyalkylene glycols, covering a wide range of synthetic stocks allow “engineering” of high performance, premium lubricants that outperform traditional fluids, built on hydrocarbons such as mineral oils and alkylbenzenes or oils from animal and vegetable origin.
Solubilities of difluoromethane (R32) in polyol ester, polyvinylether, and polyalkylene glycol base oils at temperatures from K to K Solubilités du difluorométhane (R32) dans les huiles à base de polyolester, de polyvinyléther et de polyalkylène glycol à des températures de K à K.Use Polyalkylene Glycol as the transducer liquid in accordance with Reference 2.
This fluid is considered to be better than transformer or castor oil as a transducer fluid-especially at high driving voltages.We also custom make random and block copolymers of Polyalkylene Glycols and Glycol Esters to meet your specific needs.
Attributed to its polar hydroxyl functionalities, PAG is valued for its surface lubricity, high flash point, high viscometric index, and cleanliness features, and is widely used for industrial lubrication, metal working, grease.